Endothelial cells are derived from mesenchyme and can take on different forms depending on their lining function, being either continuous or fenestrated. They make up the inner lining (intima) of capillaries, veins, and arteries, as well as lymphatic vessels and heart cavities. 


The endothelium consists of flat cells, aligned continuously along the inner surface of blood and lymphatic vessels. These cells are held together by tight cell junctions, forming a semipermeable barrier between the bloodstream and surrounding tissues. The endothelial surface is also enriched with a glycocalyx, a thin strip of carbohydrates that plays a crucial role in regulating interactions between the endothelium and the blood. 

Functions of the Endothelium 

The endothelium performs numerous essential functions for the proper functioning of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems: 

Preserving Endothelial Health 

Maintaining endothelial health is crucial for preventing cardiovascular diseases and other vascular conditions. Some ways to preserve endothelial health include: 


The endothelium plays a crucial role in the health of blood and lymphatic vessels, regulating blood and lymphatic flow, forming a protective barrier, and participating in the inflammatory response. Preserving endothelial health is essential for promoting cardiovascular health and reducing the risk of vascular diseases. A healthy diet, physical activity, and stress management are key measures to maintain a healthy and functioning endothelium. 

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