Chiloperitoneum is the presence of free chyle within the peritoneal cavity. Given the extent of the effusion, it is often referred to as “chyloascites” (see) as well. In this case, the causes can vary widely, and a thorough clinical and instrumental diagnostic phase helps to establish appropriate medical and surgical therapy. The most common causes include neoplastic infiltration of visceral lymphatic-lymph node structures, trauma (often iatrogenic, for example, during extensive lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of renal carcinoma), or lymphangiectasia. 

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