YNS (Yellow Nail Syndrome) is a rare disorder with unknown etiology and with chronic evolution. It is characterized by three fundamental clinical signs: yellow nails, primary (also called constitutional) lymphedema, and respiratory system dysfunctions. Nail anomalies, that are pathognomonic in YNS, are: decrease or total stop of nail growth, excessive nail curvature, lack of cuticle. […]


This effect is obtained with CO2 Laser beams on blood vessels with less than a millimeter gauge and on lymphatic vessels. When employed at very low power, it can seal tissues, thus replacing suture stitches (microsurgical laser-assisted anastomosis).Figure: Surgical laser employed by us, also in lymphatic microsurgery, coupled with the operative microscope.


One of the most objective and reliable methods to measure the extremities. The measurement device features a rigid cylinder filled with water, big enough to contain an extremity, and connected with a measuring system. Quite simply based on the physical principle of Archimedes, it measures – quickly and, most importantly during follow-up, in a reliable […]


The first method of manual lymphatic drainage to be codified and used on a large scale. Dating back to the end of the ’30s, and revised according to more modern scientific know-how, it is still the most popular method employed by the “German School” of Professor Földi.


Literally, it is a dye that can be injected in vivo to identify some anatomic structures that would otherwise be difficult to detect. In lymphology, Blue Patent Violet (see BPV) is the most commonly employed vital dye.


First described by Valsalva in 1704. It is performed by forcible exhalation lasting at least 10 seconds, keeping the glottis closed, after deep inhaling. This causes intrathoracic pressure to rise by 30-40 mmHg, with concurrent increase in endoabdominal pressure.


Ulcer is the leak of either cutaneous or mucous substance involving the lining epithelium as well as the underlying connective tissue support (subcutaneous tissue and submucosal tunica). Typically, it does not heal spontaneously.


Genetic disorder linked to the total absence of a sexual chromosome (kariotype 45,X : 50%) or mosaicism (45,X/46,XX : 25%) or to X- chromosome anomalies (46,XX : 25%), with the following clinical manifestations: primary amenorrhea, sexual infantilism, short stature, other associated congenital anomalies (including, in many cases, a primary lymphedema of the lower limbs).


The largest lymphatic vessel in the body (with a 5-8 mm gauge) and the most important pathway draining the lymph into the venous bloodstream. It originates from the confluence of the intestinal lymphatic trunk and right and left lymphatic lumbar trunks at the level of the first-second lumbar vertebra. In its initial portion, it may […]


Autosomal dominant myotonia congenital due to mutations in the chloride channel. It presents with a picture of widespread and progressive myotonia. As is often the case in neurological-muscular disorders, it can be associated with functional disuse lymphedema caused by muscular hypotonia.