The embryonic-fetal failure of the lymphatic structures to develop entirely is a condition that is practically incompatible with extrauterine life and is called Lymphatic Agenesis. LYMPHATIC AGENESIS: Most congenital clinical manifestations due to a deficit in the development of lymphatic structures are more frequently associated with anatomopathological pictures of hypoplasia of the lymphatic-lymph node structures […]


It is defined as the loss of the histo- and cyto-architecture of vascular tissue structures and is at the basis of most congenital malformative pathologies that affect vascular structures, whether arterial, venous, or lymphatic.  ANGIODYSPLASIA: Definition of Angiodysplasia Angiodysplasia is a disease of the blood vessels in which structural abnormalities occur. These abnormalities can affect […]


The SUCCULAVIO-JUGULAR ANGLE is formed by the confluence of the left internal jugular vein and the left subclavian vein. At this level, the thoracic duct terminates, emptying the lymph it contains into the venous system.  SUCCULAVIO-JUGULAR ANGLE: Anatomy of the Succulavio-Jugular Angle The succulavio-jugular angle is formed by the junction of the subclavian vein and […]


Antiplatelet agents are a group of drugs that act by inhibiting platelet aggregation, effectively blocking the formation of thrombi. Prototypes of this category of drugs include aspirin and ticlopidine, which achieve this goal through different mechanisms, respectively influencing prostaglandin metabolism and preventing the action of ADP (a receptor on the platelet membrane).  ANTIPLATELET AGENTS: They […]


Anticoagulants are an extremely heterogeneous category of drugs (heparin, antiplatelet agents, coumarins, etc.), but they all share a common goal, which is to slow down and regulate the normal coagulation processes in patients with altered hemostatic mechanisms, who, for various reasons, exhibit a pronounced thrombophilia and therefore an increased risk of thromboembolism.  ANTICOAGULANTS : Types of […]


Anti-inflammatory drugs are medications that act on the general or local manifestations of the inflammatory process. Their main mechanism of action is the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis (inflammatory mediators). They are commonly divided into two main categories: steroidal (corticosteroids) and non-steroidal (NSAIDs). Their role in lymphology is primarily related to their anti-edematous action and control […]


In combination with the conventional combined therapies used for the treatment of lymphedema, antibiotic prophylaxis often represents the only means of preventing lymphangitis. Individuals with lymphedema have an immunodeficiency in the anatomical regions affected by lymphatic stasis, which is not related to a cellular deficit as seen in other pathological conditions of systemic immunodeficiency. Instead, […]

Ascites chylosa

Ascites chylosa, also known as chylous ascites, is the presence of chyle (a milky fluid composed of lymph and fats) within the peritoneal cavity. The etiology of this condition can vary, and a thorough clinical assessment is necessary to determine the appropriate medical or surgical treatment. The most common causes include neoplastic infiltration of visceral […]

Elastic Functional Bandaging

Elastic functional bandaging is one of the most commonly used and effective physiotherapeutic treatments for lymphedema of the limbs and related conditions, such as acute lymphangitis. In chronic treatment, it is often replaced by elastic compression stockings (more easily manageable by the patient), which perform a function similar to bandaging, especially regarding their physical compressive […]

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