Although words like lymphocyte, lymph node, lymph, and lymphatic vessels are common in daily medical activities, Lymphology has always been considered as a sort of younger sister to Angiology or Phlebology. Also, apart from few pioneer physicians, it has never been investigated as a discreet, well identified area of research.

Therefore, the following “Dictionary” aims to be a sort of metaphorical “window” on the extensive and still poorly explored world of lymphatic diseases, as well as to provide some useful, basic information for a correct diagnosis of patients affected by lymphatic-lymph node disorders.

Questo “Dizionario” vuole, quindi, rappresentare una sorta di metaforica “finestra” sul vasto ed ancora poco inesplorato mondo della patologia linfatica e fornire utili elementi di conoscenza di base per una corretta diagnosi e gestione del paziente affetto da alterazioni del sistema linfatico-linfonoidale.


YNS (Yellow Nail Syndrome) is a rare disorder with unknown etiology and with chronic evolution. It is characterized by three fundamental clinical signs: yellow nails, primary (also called constitutional) lymphedema, and respiratory system dysfunctions. Nail anomalies, that are pathognomonic in YNS, are: decrease or total stop of nail growth, excessive nail curvature, lack of cuticle. These latter symptoms often are present much earlier (by months or years) than the other clinical signs. Systemic therapy with vitamin E has failed to prove effective in the long term, while therapy to control lymphedema is the same as the combined therapy employed in primary lymphedemas.

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