Dizionario

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Although words like lymphocyte, lymph node, lymph, and lymphatic vessels are common in daily medical activities, Lymphology has always been considered as a sort of younger sister to Angiology or Phlebology. Also, apart from few pioneer physicians, it has never been investigated as a discreet, well identified area of research.

Therefore, the following “Dictionary” aims to be a sort of metaphorical “window” on the extensive and still poorly explored world of lymphatic diseases, as well as to provide some useful, basic information for a correct diagnosis of patients affected by lymphatic-lymph node disorders.

Questo “Dizionario” vuole, quindi, rappresentare una sorta di metaforica “finestra” sul vasto ed ancora poco inesplorato mondo della patologia linfatica e fornire utili elementi di conoscenza di base per una corretta diagnosi e gestione del paziente affetto da alterazioni del sistema linfatico-linfonoidale.

TURNER SYNDROME

Genetic disorder linked to the total absence of a sexual chromosome (kariotype 45,X : 50%) or mosaicism (45,X/46,XX : 25%) or to X- chromosome anomalies (46,XX : 25%), with the following clinical manifestations: primary amenorrhea, sexual infantilism, short stature, other associated congenital anomalies (including, in many cases, a primary lymphedema of the lower limbs).

THORACIC DUCT

The largest lymphatic vessel in the body (with a 5-8 mm gauge) and the most important pathway draining the lymph into the venous bloodstream. It originates from the confluence of the intestinal lymphatic trunk and right and left lymphatic lumbar trunks at the level of the first-second lumbar vertebra. In its initial portion, it may feature an ampulla-shaped dilation called chylous cyst or receptaculum chyli of Pecquet (see). After running posteriorly to the esophagus for about 35-45 cm, between the azygos vein (on the right) and the aorta (on the left), it empties into the left subclavian vein at the level of the homolateral subclavian-jugular angle. In its final portion, the thoracic duct runs to form an anterolateral, concave arch, branching out in different ways.

THOMSEN’S SYNDROME

Autosomal dominant myotonia congenital due to mutations in the chloride channel. It presents with a picture of widespread and progressive myotonia. As is often the case in neurological-muscular disorders, it can be associated with functional disuse lymphedema caused by muscular hypotonia.

T3, T4 and TSH

Thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormones, respectively. They must be assessed in all patients with peripheral edemas, because of a likely mixedematous component and the influence of thyroid hormones on body metabolism and homeostasis at the level of the interstitium and peripheral tissues.

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