Ascites chylosa, also known as chylous ascites, is the presence of chyle (a milky fluid composed of lymph and fats) within the peritoneal cavity. The etiology of this condition can vary, and a thorough clinical assessment is necessary to determine the appropriate medical or surgical treatment. The most common causes include neoplastic infiltration of visceral lymphatic structures, trauma (often iatrogenic, such as during extensive lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of renal carcinoma), or the presence of lymphangiodysplasia. 

Other conditions like filariasis, tuberculosis (TB), and sarcoidosis can also lead to chylous ascites. 

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