It is defined as the loss of histo- and cyto-architecture of vascular tissue structures. It is the origin of most congenital malformation disorders involving arterial, venous, or lymphatic vessel structures.
Highly heterogeneous class of drugs (heparin, platelet antiaggregants, cumarinic anticoagulants, etc.), all with the same goal in common, namely to slow-down standard clotting processes in all those patients with impaired haemostatic mechanisms, who, for various reasons, are highly thrombophilic, hence with increased thromboembolic risk.
These drugs act against general and local inflammation processes. Inhibition of prostaglandine synthesis (inflammation mediators) is the mechanism of action of these drugs. They are commonly classified into two groups: steroids (e.g. cortisone), and non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). Their role in lymphology is mostly linked to their edema prevention action and their ability to control inflammation during acute or chronic lymphangitis episodes.
In association with conventional combined therapies for lymphedema treatment, antibiotics are often the only way to prevent lymphangitis. As a matter of fact, in lymphedema patients, the anatomic regions involved by lymph stasis are affected by immunodeficiency, which is not due to any cell deficit – as is the case in other systemic immunodeficiency conditions -, but rather to “difficulties” by immune system cells, and, in particular “Antigen Presenting Cells (APC)” to move. Therefore, cell-mediated defense processes are slowed down. For this reason, patients are exposed to frequent infections, with extremely dangerous acute pictures, that further worsen lymphatic insufficiency. Hence, antibiotic prophylaxis is often recommended to patients with lymph stasis with administration of “slow-release penicillin”, such as penicillin benzathine and penicillin procaine, administered via intramuscular injection every 15-21 days, also for long periods of time.
Renowned anatomist who was the first to recognize, with cadaver studies, lymphatic and chyliferous circulation, describing it, back in 1627, in his famous “Dissertatio” on “Lacteis Venis”.